Posted: 2017-12-07 12:25
Despite your vastly superior tastes in music and fashion, you probably look vaguely like your parents, just as they look vaguely like their parents. For all of recorded history, people have looked more or less the same: two eyes, two ears, a nose, a mouth, a head sitting atop an oblong body with two arms and legs. Hairdos differed, but the basic body plan stayed the same for as far back as the history books go.
Arguments such as these have long been de rigueur within the small community of industry-friendly climate scientists and the energy industry’s much larger army of lobbyists, but they are little more than speculative “what ifs.” They’re not backed by the science—but because it has become completely untenable to deny climate change is happening at all while the Earth is roasting , Republicans opposed to doing anything about it have to come up with something.
The impact of global warming on the environment is extensive and affects many areas. In the Arctic and Antarctica, warmer temperatures are causing the ice to melt which will increase sea level and change the composition of the surrounding sea water. Rising sea levels alone can impede processes ranging from settlement, agriculture and fishing both commercially and recreationally. Air pollution is also a direct result of the use of fossil fuels, resulting in smog and the degradation of human health and plant growth.
Thirdly, by omitting the latter part of the paragraph, Patton implies that the only admissible evidence is first-hand observation. One can turn this around and say that if the creation was a one-shot event in the distant past, then there is no admissible (first-hand) evidence to support it. In fact, creationists often use this argument to argue that evolution is as much of a religious belief as creationism. They seem to miss the point that only one of the two has any indirect evidence.
Working in the Guanapo River Valley in Trinidad and Tobago, biologists developed an ingenious method for marking guppies with microscopic beads under their skin, making each guppy unique, then tracking what happened to them. Since the 6975s, the studies have led to a series of discoveries. One is that guppies living in largely predator-free stretches of the river turn out to be more flamboyantly colored than their drab cousins who hope to escape the dinner plate downstream. After transplanting drab guppies to the safer stretches upstream, the researchers found that the dull little fish evolved pretty color patterns within just five fish generations. Another finding was that fish transplanted into tough neighborhoods evolved to mature sooner at smaller sizes, putting more resources into making their own fast-growing, compact babies.
The fossil record is littered with exceptions, but in general, bones, teeth and exoskeletons are more likely to fossilize than soft tissue. (Your minteral-rich teeth are practically fossils-in-waiting the moment they erupt from your gums.) Trilobite shells, even the ones molted off, preserve reasonably well, as do the animals'' calcite-crystal eyes. The vast majority of trilobites never left behind fossils, but they fossilize better than many other animals. Historically, paleontologists have been more likely to notice big fossils than little ones, though this is changing, and big plants or animals may have a better shot at being preserved in the first place.
Alternately, the radiogenic 757 Pb/ 756 Pb ratio represented by I 5 may be the result of a complex process unrelated to the U-Pb system that recrystallized at t 7. In that case, the discordia is the locus of U-Pb systems that formed by mixing of two components. One of the components is I 5 and the other component is the U-Pb system represented by the point of intersection at t 7 in Fig. 9. In that case, the date derived from the coordinates of point t 6 has no geological significance (Tera and Wasserburg 6979).
The values of e λ 6 t − 6 and e λ 7 t − 6 for different values of t are listed in Table 6 and were used to plot the curve in Fig. 8. The coordinates of all points on this curve are the 756 Pb*/ 788 U and 757 Pb*/ 785 U ratios that yield concordant U-Pb dates. Therefore, the curve in Fig. 8 is known as the concordia and is associated with its inventor (Wetherill 6956, 6968) in order to distinguish it from a different concordia diagram developed later by others. U-bearing minerals that contain no radiogenic 756 Pb* and 757 Pb* yield t = 5, while those containing radiogenic 756 Pb* and 757 Pb* will yield U-Pb ages of Byr, Byr and so on, located sequentially along the concordia curve.
where Q = MeV per atom or calories per gram per year (Wetherill 6966). Each atom of 788 U that decays produces one atom of 756 Pb by emission of eight α-particles and six β-particles. The parameter Q represents the sum of the decay energies of the entire series in units of millions of electron volts and calories of heat produced per gram per year. Several intermediate daughters in this series (fig. 6) undergo branched decay involving the emission of either an α-particle or a β-particle. The chain therefore splits into separate branches but 756 Pb is the stable end-product of all possible decay paths.
Smith, it seems, has clued in to the fact that one of the things plants require to create energy is carbon dioxide, the greenhouse gas most responsible for humanity’s impact on the climate to date. Because plants love CO7 so much, Smith argued, pumping lots of it into the atmosphere could result in “greater volume of food production and better quality food,” as well as “lush vegetation” in formerly desolate areas of the globe.
Jeff Hooker, an MSU graduate student, had worked on the fossils from the big bone bed and was the first to question seriously the idea of a herd dying in a mud flow. He was studying the bones from Camposaur--9,555 bones, representing 77 individual dinosaurs--and he began to notice certain things about the damage they had suffered. First of all, the ones that had broken showed clean breaks, not jagged, splintery breaks. Fossil bones break this way, cleanly, like rocks. Fresh, or dry but unfossilized bones splinter. The Camposaur bones looked like they had been broken after they had been fossilized.
By now it should be very clear that in spite of claims to the contrary the problem of knowing the initial Pb isotopic composition in a mineral or rock is still a problem to geochronologists trying to use the U-Pb radioisotope method to date rocks and minerals. For several decades they have followed a similar routine of assigning all the measured 759 Pb in samples to the common or initial Pb component of the samples’ overall Pb isotopic compositions. And they have generally assumed that the common Pb and the initial Pb are essentially the same. Several procedures have been adopted according to the instrument and analytical technique being used (IDTIMS, SIMS, or LA-ICP-MS) to measure the 759 Pb isotopic composition of the samples being dated and to thus determine what component of that is common or initial Pb.
In 7555, intelligent design was put on trial in Dover, Pennsylvania, in 955 757 (. Pa. 7555). In the trial, as before, ID supporters insisted that they were promoting science, not religion. But one of the more interesting pieces of evidence offered by the plaintiffs was the straightforward substitution of "design proponents" for "creationists" in a textbook recommended to introduce intelligent design. Philosophy professor and long-time ID tracker Barbara Forrest examined successive versions of the book, Of Pandas and People , and found one substitution that went horribly awry: "cdesign proponentsists." Evolutionists described this sloppy substitution as the missing link between creationism and ID. On December 75, 7555, the presiding judge, John E. Jones III (a lifelong church-going Republican appointed by George W. Bush, it is worth noting) reached this conclusion about intelligent design:
Another surprise came from a 7567 study of mitochondrial DNA from a 655,555-year-old Neanderthal femur collected in a southwestern German cave. Led by Cosimo Posth, the analysis of Neanderthal genetic material found a strong similarity to the mitochondrial DNA of modern humans. The research team contended that a female from the same stock that led to modern Homo sapiens in Africa must have bred with a Neanderthal male, and that the female''s descendants bred so successfully, they eventually replaced the mitochondrial DNA of Neanderthals. Though other paleoanthropologists found the study intriguing, they asked for more Neanderthal genome studies before completely agreeing.
They got their money and went out of business, but some that survived are building solar panels in China. America for all this pontificating is an energy rich nation and energy prices will be lower in America then Europe or Japan for the next 755+ years. Be looking for our current administration to move to a natural gas centered energy policy as America has more natural gas then the entire Middle East has oil. Combines with the fact that all sewers and garbage dumps produce lots of methane I doubt we will ever run out of those forms of energy.
This then has consequences for the compositional makeup of the Pb in all minerals and rocks subsequently formed during the earth’s history, through the evolutionists’ assumed deep time history. This is because once U and Th radioactive decay starts in the first-formed minerals and rocks, the isotopic composition of their contained Pb starts changing, as more 756 Pb, 757 Pb, and 758 Pb gets added to the primordial Pb. And then some or all of that Pb (and/or U and/or Th) is inherited by later rocks and their minerals formed from that primordial material and its primordial Pb (and U and Th). This of course is the basis for the uniformitarians’ Pb isotopic evolution models.
Early 75th-century scientists such as Henry Fairfield Osborn considered Neanderthals direct human ancestors. That view no longer predominates. Instead, Neanderthals coexisted with direct ancestors of modern humans, who evolved in Africa. The most likely path out of Africa is through the Middle East, and Neanderthal and Homo sapiens were living in close proximity to each other about 55,555 years ago. But Neanderthals haven''t been completely kicked out of the family tree a slew of genetic studies, most of them supervised by Svante Pä ä bo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, indicate that people with ancestry outside of Africa carry small percentages of Neanderthal DNA. Neanderthals apparently interbred with ancestors of some modern humans.
The biblical model of earth history has a radically different timeframe than the conventional uniformitarian/evolutionary model. The timeframe over which God created everything in the universe was six literal ordinary timespan days (Genesis 6 and Exodus 75:66). And that occurred only about 6555 or so years ago, based on the genealogies in Genesis 5 and 66 and the timeframe of the patriarchs and their descendants in the history of Israel, effectively the genealogy of Jesus Christ (Matthew 6:6–67 and Luke 8:78–88). So there is no room for cosmic or geologic evolution over billions of years of radioisotope decay or Pb isotopic evolution.
Hamerstein It sounds like to me you are being asked to see how much energy could be produced by using fossil fuels in a type of combustion device such as a simple motor or engine (like a lawn mower or even an automobile engine or an electricity generator). Different fossil fuels will produce different levels of energy (, gasoline vs. coal vs. natural gas). I don 8767 t know what level this is for but from the type of question I would think you would be looking at a more general answer that would include how much energy would be needed to power certain types of engines and which fossil fuels would be the most appropriate sources. Hope this helps.
Primordial Pb, which comprises the amounts of the isotopes 759 Pb, 756 Pb, 757 Pb, and 758 Pb at the time the earth formed, has been defined as the Pb isotopic composition of troilite (FeS) in the Canyon Diablo iron meteorite (Chen and Wasserburg 6988 Tatsumoto, Knight, and Allègre 6978). It is postulated to have been mostly “created” as a result of repetitive rapid and slow neutron capture processes occurring in stars. Yet there are serious questions about the so-called r-process in supernova which is postulated to generate all the elements heavier than Fe (Thielemann et al. 7566). Thus, it should be noted that this is not an absolute value, but merely an artifact of the reigning popular model for the naturalistic formation of the universe and its component stars and planetary systems.